Gore Tex is a trade name of a membrane that is impermeable to water and is open to water vapor diffusion in the same run. The US American chemist named after Robert W. Gore, who invented it in 1969. Its main ingredient is polytetrafluoroethylene, which is also a chemical component of Teflon. To create a microporous membrane, PTFE is thermally extended. This production technique was Robert W. Gore's main invention.
The membrane works like this: its pores are about 20,000 times smaller than a drop of water, making it counterproductive. For water vapor molecules, it is not a problem to pass through the small pores because they are smaller than molecules of liquid water. So the Gore Tex fabric is perfect because it is waterproof and windproof, but it can also be breathable. This was not possible since there was no material that provided the same properties. There were only textiles that were watertight, but they did not breathe. Eg Plastic or waxed textiles. The first textiles were fabricated and sold with the Gore tex membrane in 1976 after the inventor patented the material.
The main disadvantage of Gore Tex is that it is only functional if the osmotic pressure on one side and the other side of the membrane is high enough, which means that the temperature difference must be high enough. Thus, the Gore Tex membrane on common garments stops when the outside temperature is above 15-18 ° C. So the sweat is tied to the inside of your garment and becomes damp by inhalation.
In any case, on the fabrics, not only the membrane of Gore Tex makes them waterproof.
If only the raw membrane was used, the products would not be very durable. Thus, manufacturers use "sandwich" from various materials to provide protection for the core membrane. These materials must also be breathable, because if not, there would be no point in Gore Tex. Two typical outer protective materials are polyester and nylon, which are strong enough to withstand the hazards of everyday use. The inside of the fabric is mostly protective, and is also a material that wears the dress comfortably, such as wool
So today you can get textiles that take advantage of the Gore Tex fabric. For example, coats, gloves, shoes, pants, etc. But other areas also take advantage of outstanding features such as medical implants, insulating wires, filters, or more bicycle parts.